What is seiyaku?

What is 'seiyaku'? Well, it's just the Japanese word for 'vow' or 'oath'; an earnest and solemn promise we promise never to break.

How isSeiyaku pronounced?
Like this:Sei as in 'Say that you love me.'
ya as in 'Yahoo!'
ku as in 'That's cool.'

This site was launched in 2002 and contains an eclectic collection of articles we feel like publishing. More and more original articles are coming in from people all over the world. We're sifting through these and adding them to the site as quickly as possible.

So bookmark the home page, check back from time to time, and see what's new and what's updated.

Seeing these pages on a mobile phone

Seiyaku pages can be viewed on a desktop PC, tablet, mobile phone, etc. on an iPhone

Most pages were originally written for a full-size desktop screen, and we are currently converting all our pages to be 'mobile-friendly', which you can view easily on a smartphone without having to pinch to zoom the page.

If you have an earlier mobile phone with a tiny screen, you might prefer our sister site, which has less text and fewer images.

However, most site visitors continue to use desktop PCs and smartphones, and there are a rapidly-diminishing number of visitors to the site, which means supporting that version with updates is no longer viable. (In other words, it's out of date!)

So whatever device you have, we recommend you view the pages rather than the version.

Who are we?

Seiyaku articles have been contributed by numerous authors from around the world. The editor is Paul Harding. Validation and research is conducted by Sarah Boynton. The webmaster is Gerald Harding.

Where are we?

Our contributors are truly from all over the world and yet we're as close to you as the screen you are looking at now.

Contact us

We welcome comments, requests for additions, modifications and deletions. We normally reply within a day of your email. Criticism is also welcome, if helpful. (Trolls will not be fed.) If you use a spam-filter, please permit emails from before you email us


All sources are mentioned when known. If you own copyright to anything on this site and are not acknowledged, please contact us.


Whilst we fully recognise that plagiarism saves time, please give appropriate credit and let us know if you want to lift anything from this site – you'll find we are quite accommodating. (See full Copyright Statement)


Articles are published on this site in good faith and we take no responsible for their accuracy. We will, however, correct any errors or omissions that are pointed out to us.

Anyone may submit articles for publishing on this website but we reserve the right to edit and modify articles. For example, duplicated or redundant text may be removed.

See Publication guidelines.

Writing style

We try to be consistent.

For example, we spell "internet" with a lowercase "i". We no longer capitalise "email" or "french fries", and big as it is, "the sky" is not capitalised either.

Yes, we spelt "capitalise" with "s". This site has an international readership so we bow to the majority native-English speakers and mainly use British English spelling conventions.


You are welcome to cite any page on but you may find referencing this site as your only source is not acceptable for your institution. They may rule it does not qualify as an academically valid source.

Each page on this site is subject to continual change with the aim of improving usefulness and verifiability. Consequently, at any one time there can be no guarantee of the content's accuracy. Facts do not change, but interpretations and opinions are bound to be modified as the site matures.

You are advised not to depend on this website as your sole source of information.


You are welcome to add a link to this website on your own homepage. See Link to this site.

Searching this website

If you cannot find what you are looking for using the Google search box at the top of this page, try our deeper search.


With the exception of Google ads, the general site policy is to not carry direct advertisements (commercial or non-commercial) or URL links (one-way or reciprocal). If you write to us asking to place an advert or link on this site, you will probably not get a reply. We do not endorse any product or service that might be advertised on this site.

Report undesirable adverts

If you don't like a particular advert on this site

We have some control over the advertisements that Google selects for this site. If you do not like a particular advert, let us know, and we can probably prevent it from appearing again.


We do not solicit donations. However, from time to time people have asked how they could send a small contribution for website maintenance, and we have opened a PayPal account for this purpose. See supporting seiyaku.

Historically, like many other important words, "Internet" was treated as proper noun and capitalised...

...but conventions change.


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