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The Antiquities of the Christian Church

Chronological Index

Our Savior born four years before the vulgar era, and in the year 4709 of the Julian period – Crucified A.D. 34.

Roman Emperors

A.D.Bishops, Eccl. Officers and WritersHistorical Events

Presbyters, an order for the management of church affairs.

Baptism by immersion.

Confession of belief made at baptism.


Peter and Paul, martyrs at Rome.



Meetings of Christians in private houses.

Daily meetings for divine service.

Daily instruction by prayer, singing, and reading of the Old Testament.

Exclusion of unworthy members from the church.

Love feast connected with the communion.


Common care for the poor.

Contributions to other churches.

Church officers carry on their former occupations.

The Ebionites use unleavened bread in the supper.

Choice to church-offices usually by church-officers and the churches.


Shepherd, of Hermas

Clement, bishop of Rome

Particular days selected for the worship of God.

The keeping of Sunday.

Consecration to church offices by the laying on of hands.

The celebration of the Jewish sabbath by the Jewish Christians continued.

The yearly feasts of the Jews (passover and penlecost) continue among the Jewish Christians.

One of the presbyters presides in the college of presbyters.


Country churches with their own officers.


Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, d. 116

Reading of the New Testament Scriptures in the churches.


Papias, B. of Hierapolis in Phrygia

The communion connected with the meetings for divine service, particularly with those on Sunday.


Preparation for baptism by fasting and prayer.

Growing importance of the president in the college of presbyters.


The celebration of marriages brought into connection with the church.

Heathen Christians begin to celebrate the yearly feasts, but with altered views.

Voluntary offerings at the celebration of the communion. Traces of a separation of divine service into two parts.


Justin Martyr, d. 165

The Gnostics Marcion and Basilides

Cornelius, Bp. of Antioch

In divine service the scriptures are explained and applied by the minister.

Then follows a simple celebration of the supper.

The deacons carry the elements to the absent members.


Polycarp, Bp. of Smyrna, d. 167

The Scriptures and church Fathers are read in divine service.

Epistolary correspondence between churches (formatae).

Formula of baptism as generally prevalent mentioned in Justin Martyr.


Montanus – The Montanists

Anicet, Bp. of Rome

Hegesippus, ecclesiastical historian

Celsus, Against the Christian religion

During the persecutions the Christians hold their meetings in retired places.

Laying on of hands in baptism.

Difference about the celebration of the passover between the oriental and occidental churches.

Infant baptism.

Those that have been regenerated are incorporated into the body of the church by baptism.


Soter, Bp. of Rome

Claudius Apollinarius, Bp. of Hierapolis

Melito, Bp. of Sardis

Bardesanes, the Gnostic

First appearance of buildings appropriated to public worship.

Polycarp has a conference with Anicetus on the disagreement respecting the passover.

Images and pictures in the houses of Christians.

Weekly or monthly collections in the meetings for public worship, for the poor and the sick.

Special fasts for the benefit of those in distress.

The use of the sign of the cross in all the actions and eventa of life.

Transfer of the ordinances of the Jewish Sabbath to Sunday.


Eleutherus, Roman bishop

Dionysitis, Bp. of Corinth

Theophilus, Bp. of Antioch

177. Irenaeus, Bp. of Lyons, d. 202


Contest about the passover in Asia Minor.

Deaconesses, who are widows above sixty years old, receive the usual ordination.

In the Lord's supper the common bread, and wine mingled with water, were used.

Images of Christ among the heretics.

The deaconesses are consulted in the celebration of marriage. The bride and bridegroom partake of the Lord's supper with each other,

Abrenuntiatio at baptism and trine immersion.

More definite form given to the confessions made at baptism.

Easter eve and Whitsuntide favorite times for administering baptism in the whole church.

Celebration of Easter night by vigils.

Festival of fifleen days from Easter to Whitsuntide

Catholic epistle of Dionysius of Corinth.


Pantaenus, Catechist in Alexandria.

Tertullian at Carthage, d. 220.

The christian custom of burying the dead. Church festival in commemoration of the dead immediately after death and on its anniversaries.

Among the Catholics the division of the form of worship into two parts is the universal custom.

Tertullian opposed to infant baptism.

The heretics on their entrance into the Catholic church are, in Asia Minor and North Africa, again baptized; in Rome, they are treated as penitents.

In the oriental church divine service on the sabbath, and no fasts.

In the Romish church and other places of the West, fasts on the sabbath.

Attempts to determine the day of Christ's birth. Perhaps a celebration of it in Egypt (?)

In the churches an altar and pulpit (pulpitum, suggeslus).

The office of readers.

The performance of partcular penances by the penitents.


Victor, Bp. of Rome, d. 202.

Clemens, Catechist in Alexandria.

Caius, presbyter in Rome.

Polycrates, Bp. of Ephesus.

Images of Christ among the heathen.

Symbolical rites in baptism.

Anointing after baptism.

Use of milk and honey.

Kiss of peace.

The laying on of hands as a concluding act, regarded as particularly important.

Contest between the Christians of Asia Minor and of Rome respecting the celebration of the passover.

197. Victor of Rome withdraws from the fellowship of the Christians of Asia Minor.

The college of the presbyters still exists in subordinate connection with the bishop.


Zephyrinus, Bp. of Rome, d. 218.

203. Origen, Catechist in Alexandria.

Public discussions upon the baptism of heretics in North Africa.

Communion in private houses in North Africa.

The birth day of the martyrs celebrated.

A house of public worship in Edessa.


Demetrius, B. of Alexandria, d. 232.

Introduction of Old Testament ideas of a particular priesthood into the christian church.

The clergy, as a body, called ordo, in distinction from the plebs. laici.

The catechumens divided into classes by Origen.


228. Origen ordained presbyter at Caesarea.

Hippolitus, bishop.

Origen flees to Caesarea in Palestine.

Choice of bishop by the provincial bishops in connection with the adjacent churches.

The symbol of baptism, the rite of baptism, the Lord's prayer, and some church songs kept concealed from the catechumens.


233. Heraclus, Bp. of Alexandria. Julius Africanus.

Origen gave theological instruction in Cesarea in Palestine.

Hippolytus writes upon the disagreement of the East and West in respect to sabbatical fasts, and the contest about the passover. -Composed acanon paschaLis.

Opposers of infant baptism in Egypt.

Candidates for baptism exorcised. Consecration of the water.

Houses of public worship become more frequent.

The clergy are not permitted to become guardians, or to engage in any worldly business.

The churches provide for the support of their clergy.

Comparison of the christian clergy with the Jewish priests. Episcopus =Summus sacerdos, Presbyteri = Sacerdotes, Diaconi or Clerici (generally) = Levitae.


Dionysius, head of the catechetical school in Alexandria.

Minucius Felix, a lawyer in Rome.

244. Gregory Thaumaturgus, Bp. of Neo-Caesarea, d. 270.

Dionysius, B. of Alexandria, d. 265.

248, Cyprian, B.of Carthage, d.258.

Infant communion in Africa, afterwards also in the East.

Clinic baptism.

The laying of hands on the newly baptized begins to be regarded as the' appropriate act of none but the bishop.

The communion is extended to the sick and dying.

Frequent and large church edifices.

Provincial synods common in Africa and proconsular Asia. The whole body of the clergy and the people participate in them.

Contests of the bishops and presbyters in Rome and Africa.

Subdeacons. Acolyths. Exorcists. Ostiarii.

Doctores audentium in Africa.

Cyprian consults with the presbyters upon the affairs of the church. Sometimes the advice of the whole church is asked.


Fabian, Bp. of Rome, d, 251.

Cornelius, Bp. of Rome. d. 252.


Lucius, Bp. of Rome.

Stephanus, Bp. of Rome, 253–257.

Firmilianus, Bp. ofCaesarea in Cappadocia, d. 269.

254. Origen d. —

Sixtus 11. Bp. of Rome, d. 258.

Easter sabbath a common fast day in the church

Libelli pacis numerously distributed by the confessors.

The people take part in the elections to the church offices, particularly in the election of bishops and presbyters.

The bishop nominates the lower clergy.

Pope, title of illustrious bishops.

Synods in respect to penitents in Asia Minor.

Triumph of the Episcopal over the Presbyterial system.

Gregory Thaumaturgus permits banquets to be introduced into the festivals in honor of the martyrs.

252. Infant baptism at the council of Carthage declared to be necessary. Anointing at baptism required by Cyprian.

253. Stephen of Rome withdraws fellowship from the Christians of Asia Minor on account of the baptism of heretics.

Two councils in North Africa confirm the old African principles upon the subject of the baptism of heretics; on this account Stephen excommunicates the North Africans.

The African synod in the autumn of 256, declare in favor of the customs of the African church.


Dionysius, Bp. of Rome, d.270. Sabellius.

Paul of Samosata, Bp. of Antioch, 265–269.

The practice of cheering the preacher during the delivery of his sermon.

The Lord's supper has become more complicated and splendid.



Felix, Bp. of Rome, d. 275.

Mani, d. 277.

Eutychianus, Bp. of Rome, d. 283.

Methodius, Bp, of Tyre.

Fixed formularies for the administration of this rite are formed.

Catalogues of the members of the church and of Christians that have died are kept.


Pierius and Theognostus in Alexandria.

Caius, Bp. of Rome, d. 296.

Infant baptism common among the Persian Christians.


Pamphilius, Pres. in Caesarea.

Marcellinus, Bp. of Rome, d. 304.

Lucian and Dorotheus, Pres. in Antioch.

Pamphilus establishes a theological school in Caesarea.

The church year begins with Easter festival.

Attempt to introduce images into the churches.


Peter, Bp. of Alexandria, d. 311.

Marcellus, Bp. of Rome, d. 309.

Arnobius, orator in Sicca.

Eusebius, Bp. of Rome, 311.

Melchiades, Bp. of Rome, d. 314.

Peculiar dress of the clergy.

Beginning of sacred hermeneuticks.

The beginnings of the school of Antioch.

305. The council of Elvira forbids images in churches.

The splendid church in Nicomedia destroyed.

The council at Elvira enjoins sabbatical fasts, censures the irregularities in the keeping of vigils, and limits the festival of Whitsuntide to one day.

In the Romish church the beginning of an eighty-four years' Easter cjcle.

The council at Elvira determines the duration of the catechumenate.

The practice of sending consecrated bread as a sign of church fellowship.

The subterranean vaults in Rome (catacombs) used for christian burial places.

Christian emblems, pictures, carving on the coffins,and funeral lamps in the niches of the walls.



Alexander, Bp. of Alexandria.

Sylvester, Bp. of Rome, d. 335.

The council at Aries gives laws respecting the baptism of heretics.

churches are solemnly dedicated to the worship of God.

The order of rural bishops in most places suppressed.

Regular division of the penitents into classes.

Easter cycle of nineteen years; perhaps established by Eusebius of Caesarea.

church in Tyre built by Paulinus.


Arius in Alexandria, d. 336.

Eusebius, Bp. of Caesarea in Palestine, d. 340.

Eusebius, Bp. of Nicomedia.

Eustathius, Bp. Antioch.

Alexander, Bp. of Constantineole.

Athanasius, Bp. of Alexandria, d. 373.

Establishment of the canonical age for bishops and of seven as the number of Deacons.

Exclusion of such as had received clinic baptism from the rank of clergy.

Ecumenical synods.

Laws against taking those who have been penitents and neophytes into church offices.

Fixed regulations respecting the number and time of the provincial synods.

Altars mostly of wood.

Constantine and his mother very active in building churches in Asia and Europe.

The church of St. Sophia built.

Several Basilicae are granted to the Christians.

321. (in March and June) Decrees of Constantine in respect to the observance of Sunday. His orders respecting the army. Law for the religious observance of Friday.

325. The Nicene council ordains a uniform celebration of the passover for the churches, and oommits to the Alexandrians the calculation of Easter.

Celebration of a festival of the Ascension.

Four classes of catechumens.

Arius, a writer of sacred songs.

In the public worship, particular prayers for catechumens, energumens, and penitents.



Marcus, Bp. of Rome, d. 336.

Julius I. Bp. Rome, d. 352.

Macarius, Sen. et Jun.

Arch-presbyters. Arch-deacons. Favorite division of churches into three parts

ante-temple, nave, and bema or sanctuary.

At the feast of Epiphany the celebration of the passover is announced. The oriental eighth of Whitsuntide a general martyr festival.

Supplications for the repose of the souls of the dead.

The pretended discovery of the cross in the Holy Land promoted the superstition about the use of the sign of the cross.


Julius Firm. Maternus. Gregorius, bp. of Alexandria. 342. Macedonius, bp. of Constantinople. Eusebius, bp. of Emesa, d. 360. Leontius, bp. of Antioch. Hilarius, bp. of Pictavium, d. 368

Bishops and emperors exert an important influence upon church elections.

341. Decision upon the rights of provincial synods. New restrictions upon the country bishops.

344. Decision upon the passage of the bishop through the diflerent grades of the clergy. The installation of country bishops prohibited. Images in many oriental churches.

341. Decision in Antioch upon the celebration of the passover.

Festival of the Maccabees in Syria.

Anniversary festival in commemoration of the dedication of churches.

Celebration of the festival of the birth of Christ in Rome (on the 25th of December).

The ceremonies before and at baptism have become complicated. Anointing before and after baptism. The changing of the name at baptism is practised. The delaying of baptism a somewhat general fault particularly of the oriental churches.


Liberius, bp. of Rome, 352–55 and 58–66.

Felix, bp. of Rome, 355–58.

Cyrill, bp. of Jerusalem, d. 386.

Zeno, bp, of Verona.

Hilary, Dea. Luciferit.

Church singers. In the East the emperors are allowed to go into the bema.

Aerius urges to a reformation of life in the church, and is particularly opposed to distinction of rank in the church.

In Gangra Sunday fasts prohibited.

The heathen calends of January kept among the Christians as a fast day.

Responsive singing introduced by the monks into the church of Antioch.

Hilarius of Pictavium a writer of hymns.

Liturgies are written (?). Preparatory exorcism on the days previous to baptism by Cyrill of Jerusalem.

Aerius attacked the false notion of the efficacy of prayers for the dead.

A special burial service.

Solemnization of funerals, particularly in the East.


Aerius, Presb. in Sebaste.

Ephraem the Syrian, dea. of Edessa, d. 378.

Hieronymus Stridon, d. 420.

Rufinus of Aquileia, d. 410.

Epiphanius, bp. of Constantia, d. 403.

Damasus, bp. of Rome, d. 384.

Itinerant presbyters appointed in the place of country bishops.

Theological school at Edessa.

The teaching of heathen literature in christian schools forbidden by Julian. He establishes a christian institution afterwards among the heathen.

The office of oeconomus (steward of the church).

Benevolent institutions of every kind proceeding from the church, in the cities and in the country, particularly in the East.

Western churches begin to lose their importance.

Altars built of stone.

church laws for the celebration of Sunday, the sabbath and the quadrigesima.

Julian celebrates Epiphany in Vienna. Martyr-festivals, with vigils, very frequent. Dies stationum (stationary days) continue to be kept in Egypt, Asia Minor, Constantinople, and in other places.

Imperial pardons granted at Easter.

Council of Laodicea forbids the singing of Apocryphal psalms in the churches, and the holding of love-feasts in the churches.

Basilius, a promoter of responsive singing in the churches.

Ephraem composes church hymns.

The practice of carrying consecrated bread as though it possessed magical powers.

The composition of little doxologies by the anti-Arians is opposed in Cappadocia.

The office of copiatae.

The practice of crowning newly married people with wreaths, of veiling the bride, etc. retained.

The council of Laodicea forbids improper usages at weddings, and the celebration of marriage in the time of the quadrigesimal fasts.


Optatus, bp. of Mileri.

Basil, bp. of Caesarea in Cappadocia, d. 379.

Gregory bp. of Nyssa, d. after 394.

Martin, bp. of Tours, d. after 400.

Amphilochius, bp. of Iconium, d. after 394.

Diodorus, bp. of Tarsus, d. about 390.

Ambrose, bp. of Milan, d. 397.

Philastrius, bp. of Brixia.

Gregory Nazianzen, bp. of Constantinople, d. 391

Heathen temples are converted into christian churches.

During the great week in Cappadocia daily morning and evening service.

A local festival in Alexandaia in commemoration of the earthquakes.

Epiphany the time for baptism in the East.

Basil of Caesareaa zealous liturgist.

Ambrose transfers responsive singing to the churches of the West, composes hymns for the church, and does away the love feasts.

The chapels of the martyrs are used for burying places in Cappadocia.

Christian family vaults.


Didymus, president of the catechetical school at Alexandria, d. 395.

Jovian, monk in Rome.

Apollinaris, bp. of Laodicea.

Siricius, bp. of Rome, d. 398.

Theophilus, bp. of Alexandria, d. 412.

Johannes Chrysostom. 38G. Pres. in Autioch. 398. Bp. of Constantinople, d. 407,

Asterius, bp. of Amasia.

Severianus, bp. of Gabala, d. after 408.


Christian poor-houses and hospitals in Italy.

The office of penitentiary presbyter abolished.

The Lateran and St. Peter's church in Rome.

Epiphanius opposed to having images in churches.

Baptisteries in or near the church.

386. Renewed order of the emperor in relation to the celebration of Sunday.

Disagreement of Rome and Alexandria as to the celebration of Easter.

Differeni practice in the oriental churches in respect to sabbath fasts. The Romish church warmly defends her own usage in respect to it.

3te6. The festival of Christ's birth celebrated in Syria on the 25th of December.

Decree of the Anti-Friscillians against partaking of the Lord's supper out of the church.

Complaints against theatrical singing in the church.

3b]. Decree of the ecumenical council respecting those that re-baptized heretics.

More fixed regulations respecting church reading.

Siricius of Rome forbids baptism in Epiphany.

Images of the cross very frequent.

Images of Christ are still opposed.

In the Romish church even in espousals the blessing of the priest was necessary.

Theodosius revived the Roman law that bury rying places sJiould be without the city.


Augustine, bp. of Hippo, d. 430.

Theodoras, bp. of Mopsvestia, d. 429.

Palladius the Younger, bp. of Aspona, d. before 431.

Severus Endelechius.

Gaudentius, bp. of Brixia.

Anastasius I. bp. of Rome, d. 402.

Sulpitius Severus, Presb. d. 420.

Missions are promoted by Chrysostom.

A mission institute at Constantinople for the Goths

398. State laws respecting the choice of monks to clerical offices, and respecting the appointment of country clergy.

Decrees of the western church in relation to the trial of the clergy

392 (and 389). Laws of the empire to suspend ordinary business eight days before and eight days after Easter.

393. Evening communion on Dies viridium.

In Antioch, on Good Friday, meetings for divine service in the churches of the martyrs.

The Donatists oppose the festival of Epiphany.

The birth day of Christ as determined at Rome, generally adopted in the West.

The birth of John Baptist celebrated on the 24th of June.

Heathen usages in the celebration of festivals.

393. The reading of uncanonical books, salutation by the reader, and the distribution of the eucharist to the dead forbidden.

The bishops alone confer confirmation.

In Rome no heretic may be re-baptized.

Repasts for the poor take the place of the old love feasts

The custom of employing mourning-women is introduced into the church.

Alms are distributed in memory of the dead.

Images are allowed in the East.


Paulinus, bp. of Nola, d. 431.

Innocent I. bp. of Rome, d. 417.

Atticus, bp. of Constantinople.


Vigilantius, Presb. in Barcelona.

Victor of Antioch.

Defensors of the church established.

408. Laws of the emperor for the establishment of Episcopal jurisdiction.

409. Laws giving the bishops the oversight of the prisons.

Paulinus is active in building churches in Nola and Fundi.

401. Request of the Africans to the emperor to restrain public amusements on Sunday.

Vigilantius opposes the vigils.

Celebration of the death of Theodosius in Constantinople.

Innocent of Rome establishes the sabbatical fast by a law of the church.

Celebration of the anniversary of the ordination of bishops.

Family communion continues in many churches of the East and West.

Practice of vicarious baptism among the psendo-Marcionites in Syria.

A pretended hvmn of Christ among the Priscillianists.

The burial of the dead the common custom.

Bishops interred in the churches.

Feasts at the graves of the dead, with many abuses accompanying.


Nilus the monk.

Pelagius and Caelestius.

Joannes Cassianus, d. after 432.

Cyril, bp. of Alexandria, d. 444.

Isidorus of Pelusium, d. about 440.

Zosimus, bp. of Rome, d. 418.

416. Office of the parabolani in Constantinople.

418. Increase of the parabolani to 600.

Paulinus favors the use of images in churches and baptisteries, particularly for the instruction of the country people.

In the East complaints of there being too many images in the churches

Representation of the sign of the cross in churches.

Inscriptions in and upon churches.

Contest in North Africa about the sabbatical fast.

Cyrill improves the Easter-table of Theophilus.

Celebration of the Festum Stephani in North Africa; (Still earlier in the interior of Italy.)

In the oriental churches candles are lighted while the Gospels are read.

Theodosius II. diminishes the number of the copiatae.


Boniface 1. bp. of Rome, d. 422.

Possidius, bp. of Calama.

Synesius, bp. of Ptolemais.

Philostorgius, ecclesiastical writer.

Coelestinus I. bp. of Rome, d. 432.

Vincentius of Lirinum, d. before 440.

Nestorius, bp. of Constantinople, d. about 440.

Theodoret, bp. of Cyrus in Syria, d. 457

In the East the people still take part in the church elections.

Votive offerings in the churches, particularly in the chapels of the martyrs.

425. Theatrical exhibitions on Sunday and on the high church festivals forbidden by the emperor.

In Egypt a separate celebration of the festival of Christ's birth.

Celebration of the feast of annunciation.

N. B. The church history of Socrates extends from 306 to 439 (continued by Theodoret to 526); that of Sozomen from 323 to 423; that of Philostorgius, an Arian bishop, from 300 to 425; that of Theodoret from 325 to 429; that of Evagrius continuator of Socrates and Theodoret from 431 to 593.

John, bp. of Antioch.

Proclus, bp. of Constantinople, d. 446.

Hilary, bp. of Aries, d. 449.

Sixtus 111. bp. of Rome, d. 440.

Peter Chrysolpgus, bp. of Ravenna, d. 458.

Barsumas, bp, of Nisibis, to 489.

Office of the Apocrisiarii.

The celebration of the Quadrigesimal fasts is still different in different ecclesiastical provinces.

No definite laws for the keeping of fasts yet fixed.

Prostration of the people on the exhibition of the elements of the supper (?)


Ibas, bp. of Edessa, to 457.

Leo I. bp. of Rome, d. 461.

Salvianus, presb. in Massilia.

Socrates the historian.

Sozomen the historian.

Dioscurus, bp. of Alexandria.

Proterius, bp. of Alexandria.

Flavian, bp. of Constantinople.

441. The appointment of deaconesses forbidden in the West.

Crosses upon the altar.

Altars richly ornamented.

Councils are held in the baptisteries.

Contentions about the Easter festival of the year 444.

The Romans take the side of the Alexandrians.

Festum cathedrae Petri in the Romish church.

Remains of heathen customs which became mingled in the Roman celebration of Christ's birth.

New contest about the calculation of Easter.

Leo of Rome yields to the Alexandrians.

Infant Baptism a common church ordinance.

The Trisagion Hymn is altered.


Symeon Stylites,d. 460.

Paschasinus, bp. of Lilybaeum.

Maximus, bp. of Turin.

Mamertus, bp. of Vienna.

Gennadius, bp. of Constantinople.

Timotheus Aelurus, bp. of Alexandria.

Arnobius the Younger.

Hilary, bp. of Rome, d. 468.

451. The office of oeconomus established by law.

The bishops have the spiritual oversight of the cloisters.

Church Lectionarii in the Gallic churches.


Timotheus, bp. of Alexandria.

Simplicius, bp. of Rome, d. 483.

Peter the Fuller.

Canon Paschalis of Victorius Aquilanus introduced into Rome in 465.

Leo allows penitents the privilege of private confession previous to their being received again into the church.

461. Council of Tours decrees that the bread be dipped in wine in the communion of the sick. Burial places in churches, particularly in those of the martyrs, are considered as peculiarly holy.

469. The edict of 425 respecting the observance of Sunday made more strict.


Sidonius Apollinaris, bp. of Clermont.

Faustus of Rnegiura, d. afler 490.

Acacius, bp. of Constantinople.

Petrus the monk, bp. of Alexandria.

Victor, bp. of Vita.

Gennadius, presb, of Masillon, d. after 493.

Vigilius, bp. of Tapsus.

Macedonius, bp. of Constantinople.

Felix III. bp. of Rome, d. 492.

Flavian, bp. of Antioch.

Peter Fullo makes an addition to the Trisagion.

The North African church holds strictly to a particular form of prayer.

Parents sponsors for their own children.

Rogation days instituted at Vienna.


Gelasius, I. bp. of Rome, d. 496.

Anastasius II. bp. of Rome, d. 498.

Avitus, bp. of Vienna.

489. Destruction of the theological school at Edessa.

The festival of Peter and Paul celebrated at Constantinople with new splendor.

Gelasius of Rome active in behalf of liturgies.


Symmachus, bp. of Rome, d. 514.

Boethius, d, 525.

Epiphanijas the hist'n of the church.

Theodorus, historian of the church.

A special office instituted in Constantinople for enrolling the catechumens in the church books.

Council of Agde orders, that on Palm-Sunday the catechumens shall publicly repeat the creed.

Consecration of altars.


Dionysius the Small.

Caesarius, bp. of Aries, d. 542.

Hormisdas bp. of Rome, d. 523.

Romish bishops bear, by way of eminence, the title of pope.

Church ordinance respecting lay communion.

The division of divine service into two parts begins gradually to disappear.

Legends respecting images of Christ not made with hands.

Celebration of Christmas eve. Ordinance respecting the celebration of Rogation days in Gaul.


Philoxenus, bp. of Hierapolis.

Fulgentius, bp. of Ruspe, d. 533.

Procopius of Gaza.

John of Cappadocia, bp. of Constantinople, d. 520.

Epiphanius, bp. of Constantinople.

In the Gallic and Romish churches frequent participation of Christians in the heathen celebration of New Year.

Decree of the council of Gironne respecting Rogations.

Easter-table of Dionysius Exiguus.

In the Gallic and Romish church the ecclesiastical year begins at Christmas.

517. In the West, prohibitions of the appointment of deaconesses repeated.


John I. bp. of Rome, d. 526.

Felix IV. bp. of Rome, d. 530.

Boniface U. bp. of Rome, d. 532.

John II. bp. of Rome, d. 535.

The Benedictines have the charge of the education ofyouth.

Hundred deacons in Constantinople.

524. Council of Valencia, passes a decree in relation to the reading of the gospels.

The Te Deum appears in the rule of the Benedictines,

527. The calculation of Dionysius respecting Easter adopted at Rome.

Great activity in building churches in the East, partcularly in Constantinople.

529. In the West a decree for the education of the clergy.

Church order in respect to the oversight of prisons by the bishops.

In Palestine a combined celebration of the baptism and birth of Christ at Epiphany festival, continues.


Agapet I.bp. of Rome, d. 536.

Anthimus, bp. of Constantinople.

Silverius, bp. of Rome.

Vigilius, bp. of Rome, d. 555.

Fulgentius, dea. at Carthage, d. before 551.

Cosmas Indicopleustes.

Order in relation to the city church in Constantinople.

Rebuilding of the church of St. Sophia.

538. Laws for the celebration of Sunday passed at the synod in Orleans.

Prohibition of marriage between baptized persons and their sponsors.


Aurelius Cassiodorus, d. after 562.

Frimasius, bp. of Adrumetum.

Facundus, bp. of Hermiane, d. about 570.

Junilius, African bp.

Order of tlie emperor respecting the installation of the clergy, and the evidence to be given by them of their agreement with the faith of the church.

Consecration of the sites of churches.

Canon of Victorias continues in Gaul.


Pelagius I. bp. of Rome, d. 560.

Procopius of Caesarea.

John III. bp. of Rome, d. 573.

John Philoponus, d. after 610.

Theological school at Nisibis flourishes.


Joannes Scholasticus, bp. of Const, d. 578.


562. Dedication of the church of St. Sophia.

Institution of a three days' fast in the Gallic church for the time of the celebration of the festival of the calends.

Prohibitionof abuses in the Festum Cathedrae Petri.

The council of Braga forbids tombs in the inner area of churches, and the use of the burial service at the interment of suicides.


Benedict 1. bp. of Rome, d. 578.

Pelagius II. bp. of Rome, d, 590.

Evagrius, the historian.

Joannes Jejunator, bp. of Const.

In the church of St. Sophia, a vault for the prince.

Council of Braga forbids the practice of dipping bread in wine at the supper.

A festum circumcisionis on the first day of January.

572. A law in the West concerning the visitation of the districts of the bishops.


Leander, bp. of Hispalis.

Gregory I. bp. of Rome, d. 604.

585. A church order respecting the care of widows and orphans.

The council of Mascon enjoins the continuation of Easter festival to the pascha clausum.

The formula of distribution in the Romish church becomes longer.

A single immersion in baptism in the Spanish church.

The council of Toledo requires the recitation of the creed in the liturgy of the supper.

The calculation of Easter according to Dionysius adopted in Spain.

The Romish quadrigesima = 36 days.


Augustinus, in Britain.

Cyriacus, bp. of Constantinople,

Isidorus, bp. of Hispalis, d. 636.

The Romish church active in missions.

Gregory allows to the Anglo-Saxons the celebration of festivals with banquets, and establishes the litania septiformis.

The Alexandrian calculation of Easter found in Gaul.

Contentions of Augustine with the ancient Britons about their reckoning of Easter.

Gregory I. improves the church singing, establishes a school for singers, gives a new form to the liturgy of the supper, is opposed to the worship of images, but not to their use in the churches.


Sabinian, bp. of Rome, d. 606.

Thomas, bp. of Constantinople.

The Roman Pantheon becomes a christian church.

Continuation of the Easter table of Dionysius Exiguus.

Leander and Isidor active for the liturgy in the Spanish church.


Boniface 111. bp. of Rome, d. 607.

Boniface IV. bp. of Rome, d. 615.

Feast of All Saints in the Romish church.


Sergius, bp. of Constantinople.

Bells are found in the West.

Festum apparitionis St. Michaelis in Rome.

Monks and clergy not permitted to become sponsors.


Deusdedit, bp. of Rome, d. 618.

Boniface V. bp. of Rome, d. 625.

Honorius I. bp, of Rome, d. 638.

Sophronius, bp. of Jerusalem.

Fyrrhus, bp. of Constantinople.

Severinus, bp. of Rome, d. 640.

First appearance of the bishop's Baculus and Annulus,

Council of Toledo enjoins fasts on the day of Christ's death; prescribes concerning the consecration of wax candles for Easter.

Prescription of the council of Toledo respecting church hymns.

The oriental church teachers seek to justify scientifically the worship of images.


John IV. bp. of Rome, d. 642.

Theodore, bp. of Rome, d. 649.

Martin I. bp. of Rome, d. 655.

Eugenius I. bp. of Rome, d. 657.

Deaconesses continue in the oriental church.

Feast of the transfiguration of Christ in the oriental church.


Vitalian 1. bp. of Rome, d. 672.

Thomas, bp. of Constantinople.

John, bp. of Constantinople

656. Festum annuntiationis on the 25th of March instituted in Toledo.

Remains of the old custom in the supper in the Greek church.


Theodore, bp. of Canterbury.

Constantine, bp. of Constantinople.

Adeodatus, bp. of Rome, d. 676.

Donus I. bp. of Rome, d. 678.


Agatho, bp. of Rome, d. 682.

Heathen customs mingle themselves in the festivals of the Virgin.

Unleavened bread commonly used in the supper.


Leo U. bp. of Rome, d. 683.

Benedict II. bp. of Rome, d. 685.


John V. bp. of Rome, d. 686.

Sonon, bp. of Rome, d, 687.

692. Council of Trullan forbids the reception of emoluments for the administration of the sacraments.

Council of Trullan against symbolical representations of Christ, and against crosses upon the floor of churches.

Council of Trullan requires the keeping of the sabbath as a fast; brings to remembrance the after-celebration of Easter; forbids the missa praesanctificat on the day of the annunciation to Mary ; condemns the remains of the heathen celebration of the calends, and the customs of St. John's day ; gives orders upon the spiritual relation between the baptized person and the sponsors; confirms the decision of 381 respecting heretics.


Sergius I. bp. of Rome, d. 701.

The venerable Bede, d. 735.


Roman Emperors

Augustus, d. 14

Tiberius, d. 37

Caligula, d. 48

Claudius, d. 54

Nero, d. 68

Galba, d. 69

Vespasian, d. 79

Titus, d. 81

Domitian, d. 96

Nerva, d. 98

Trajan, d. 117

Hadrian, d. 138

Antoninus Pius, d.161

Marcus Aurelius, philosopher, d. 180

Commodus, d. 192

Pertinax, d. 193

Septiraius Severus, d. 211

Caracalla, d. 217

Macrimus, d. 218

Heliogabulus, d, 222

Alexander Severus, d. 235

Maximus the Thracian, d. 238

Gordianus III. d. 244

Phillip, the Arabian, d. 249

Decius Trajanus, d. 251

Trebonianus Gallus I. d. 253

Gallus Volusianus, d. 253

Valerian, d. 260

Gallienus, d. 268

Claudius Gothicus, d. 270

Aurelianus, d. 275

Tacitus, d. 276

Auielius Frobus, d. 282

Aurelius Carus, regent with Carinus, d. 283

Numerianus, d. 284

Diocletian with Maximian, from 286 to 305, regents for the emperors Galerius and Constantine Chlorus

306. Constantius Chlorus, d. Constantine, Maxentius, Maximianus, Galerius, Severus, and Maximin, rulers

307. Severus d. succeeded by Licinius

Maximian, d. —

311. Galerius d. —

312. Maxentius d. —

313. Maximinus d. —

Licinius, d. 324

Constantine sole emperor, d. 337

Constantine II. d. 340

Constantius, d. 361

Constans, d. 350

361. Constantius, d. —

Julian the Apostate, d. 363

Jovian, d. 364

Valentinian I. in the West, d. 375

Valens in the East, d. 378.

Gratian, d. 383

Valentinian 11. d. 392

Theodosius in the East

392. Theodosius sole emperor, d. 395

Division of the Roman Empire

Honorius, d. 423

Valentinian III. d, 455

Arcadius, d. 408

Empress Eudocia

Theodosius II. d. 50

414. Pulcheria Augusta

Rieimer, d. 472


475. Romulus Augustus

The Western empire is divided into several new states.

476. Odoaster, k. of Italy and Noricum

481.Clovis, I. d. 511

Pulcheria, 453

Marcian, died 457

457. Leo I. the Thracian


49l. Anastasius emperor until 518

518. Justin I. to 527

526. Atalaric, k. of the Ostragoths 527

534. Theodat k. of Ostrogs

536. Vitiges, k. of Ostrogs

Justinian to 565

Totila, k. of Ostrog.

552.Tejas, k. of Ostrog

558.Chlotar, k. of France.

Empress Theodora.


565. Justin II, to 578

578. Tiber II

582. Mauritius

602. Fhocas

Chlotar II. k. of France

610. Heraclius

Constantine III


Constans II

655. Clovis I

656. Chlotar III


668. Constantine IV


685. Justinian II

695. Leontius


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